Guidelines for Pronunciation

Here are some guidelines for how to pronounce the words.

  • a as u in Sun
  • aa as a in Rama
  • i as i in in
  • ee as ee in peel
  • u as u in pull
  • oo as oo in root
  • R as r in harsh
  • E as a in name
  • ai as i in night
  • O as o in gold
  • au as ow in now
  • ka as k in park
  • kha as ckh in blockhead
  • ga as g in gun
  • gha as gh in ghee
  • n remains silent & appears along with nga, nka, etc.
  • cha as ch in touch
  • CHa as tch in pitcher
  • ja as j in jug
  • jha as dgeh in hedgehog
  • Ta as t in cut
  • THa as th in ant-hill
  • Da as d in mud
  • DHa as dh in godhood
  • Na as n in pun
  • t as th in teeth
  • tha as th in thump
  • da as th in mother
  • dha as dh in dhanush
  • na as n in nut
  • pa as P in pup
  • pha as ph in loop-hole
  • ba as b in bun
  • bha as bh in abhor
  • ma as m in mother
  • ya as y in yard
  • ra as r in Ravi
  • la as 1 in luck
  • va as w in work
  • sha as sh in shankar
  • SHa as sh in fish
  • sa as s in Sun
  • ha as h in humble
  • kSHa as ksha in akshay
  • La as l in collect
  • shra as shr in shroud jnya – unique pronunciation used in words like yajnyam, jnyaanam, : to be pronounced as ha

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